Triple Bottom Line Approaches to Development in the Arctic – Foreword

The following papers are the culminating work of a team of Graduate students from four universities in Iceland, Norway, and the United States, representing multiple disciplines. The students worked together remotely with faculty support over the past year and throughout the COVID-19 pandemic period.

The focus of the cohort was to identify and research Arctic-related issues through the lens of the “Triple Bottom Line.” This business-related model seeks to develop practices that fully balance “People, Planet, and Profit” through measuring the social, environmental, and economic impacts of their work and products. Each of the papers below touched on one or more aspects of the Triple Bottom Line. The students represent a broad array of disciplines, including law, life sciences, health, business, environmental, and social sciences. Students were encouraged to work with their faculty members to integrate their research paper into their existing studies and/or research.

The cohort hopes to meet in person to attend the Arctic Circle Assembly in Reykjavik, Iceland in October 2021.

Special thanks go to the faculty, the cohort organizing committee, and Nordicum-Mediterraneum (NOME) for providing a publishing opportunity for the students. And a final thank you to the students themselves who persevered through a difficult year balancing the work of the cohort and their research with their own studies.


Jeanette Hammer Andersen
Professor and Head of Marbio, The Norwegian College of Fishery Science
University of Tromsø (UiT) The Arctic University of Norway

David Christian Finger
Assistant Professor, School of Technology / Department of Engineering
Reykjavik University (RU), Iceland

Rachael Lorna Johnstone
Professor, Faculty of Law
University of Akureyri (UNAK), Iceland

Firooza Pavri
Professor and Director of the Muskie School of Public Service
University of Southern Maine (USM), USA

Cohort Organizing Committee
Patrick Arnold
Co-Founder & CEO
New England Ocean Cluster

Ross Hickey
Assistant Provost for Research Integrity
University of Southern Maine

Tracey Meagher
Policy Associate, Maine Economic Improvement Fund
University of Southern Maine

Terry Shehata
Senior Policy Associate for Research and Economic Development & Coordinator of the Maine Economic Improvement Fund
University of Southern Maine

Morten Simonsen-Sagerup
Adviser, International Cooperation Section

Laura Woods-Vachon
Policy Associate, Research & Organizational Development
University of Southern Maine

Maggie Vishneau
Senior Policy Associate, Research & Organizational Development
University of Southern Maine